There are two main ways that heroin is metabolised; one of the ways is through the Hepatic First Pass. This is done via the removal of an acetyl group when taken orally. The other way is through injections. Heroin that is administered via this route will evade the Hepatic First Pass and will quickly cross the blood-brain barrier. This is because of the presence of an acetyl group that makes it more soluble to fat. Once, in the brain, the acetyl group is removed, and heroin is reduced to 3-monoacetylmorphine and 6-monoacetylmorphine.
Lack of calcium in the diet can lead to osteoporosis in which the bone is less dense and therefore brittle and weak. In women, osteoporosis can be due to lack of oestrogens after menopause or oophorectomy. Calcium is usually ubiquitous in diet, but often, a small amount of food provides reasonable amounts, of which dairy products are best.
The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) belongs to a family of viruses called the lentiviruses; it is a Retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a condition that causes the degeneration of the immune system. This leaves an individual more prone to opportunistic infections and some forms of cancers. HIV/AIDS is transmitted through the contact of infected Blood, semen, vaginal fluid and through breast milk; the most common way that HIV/AIDS is spread through sexual intercourse with an infected person. This paper will look at the history of HIV/AIDS, the distribution, how the HIV/AIDS infects the host and how it targets the immune system (Sharp & Hahn, 2011).
Palliative care is an approach to care that focuses on improving the quality of life of patients and their families facing the issues that are associated with life-threatening chronic incurable illnesses (Jarrell, 2016). It is important to note that palliative care does not mean end of life care and patients can be on palliative for years before they die (Wallerstedt et al.,