Between 2016-2017, there were 1.6 million emergency department visits among people over the age of 65. The three most common presentations where chest pain, and musculoskeletal issues related to falls ( Falls Resulting in Patient Harm in Hospitals, 2018). Dementia people living in residential aged care facilities are vulnerable, frail and often have many comorbidities that put them at risk of falls (Fernando et al., 2017). For many of these resident’s hospitalisation, carries it with it a lot of risks. (Bail et al., 2015) Found that urinary tract infections, pressure areas, pneumonia and delirium are preventable hospital acquired complications that place a heavy financial burden on the health care system. Studies show that while people with dementia are at higher risk of hospital readmission, many of these hospitalisations are preventable (Ma et al., 2019).
Cocaine is a psychoactive alkaloid of the coca plant; it was originally used for local surgeries as an anaesthetic but has now become a recreational drug. Unlike amphetamines, which resemble the structural formula of dopamine and noradrenaline, cocaine has a similar structure to other synthetic sedatives. Cocaine is well absorbed when administered via the mucous membranes, the GI tract and IV route. Peak concentration happens within five minutes after intravenous injection, while the peak levels from smoking are usually reached within 60 minutes. Some cocaine is excreted in urine unchanged, the majority is metabolised into benzoylecgonine, ecgonine methyl ester, norcocaine and other metabolites. Although cocaine has a short half-life, the elimination half-life of the metabolites lasts longer. Studies also show that the half-life of cocaine may increase the longer it is used.