THE IMPORTANCE OF END-OF-LIFE PLANNING

Palliative care can be defined as an approach to health that involves improving the quality of life of patients and their families that are facing issues related to chronic, incurable and life-threatening illnesses (Wallerstedt et al., 2019). It is vital to note that, palliative care is not just limited to the elderly, but can be anyone with an incurable illness and the goal is to improve quality of life. The stages of palliative care include; stable, unstable, deteriorating, terminal and bereavement (McClelland et al., 2020).

Why does child marriage happen?

According to World Vision, the most alarming statistic about child marriage is that almost 700 million women in the world today were married as girls. A third of them before there 15th birthday. Child marriage is a legal marriage or informal union where one or both parties are under the age of 18.

The Menstrual Cycle

The female reproductive system is made up of the gonads, duct system and accessory glands. It produces gametes and transports them for fertilisation. The process of birth and nurturing also […]

The sonic hedgehog gene

The sonic hedgehog gene is the human form of the hedgehog superfamily of inductive molecules that play a role in the development of the embryo. Sonic hedgehog is necessary for the development of the front part of the brain. This signaling protein helps to establish the line that separates the right and left side of the forebrain. Sonic hedgehog also plays an important role in the formation of the eyes. During early development the cells that develop into the eye form a single structure called the eye field. The structure is found in the centre of the developing face. Sonic hedgehog signaling causes the eye field to separate into two distinct eyes (National Library of Medicine, 2020

Pharmacology basics| Drug Metabolism and Absorption.

The rate and degree of blood and absorption into the blood is dependent on the route of administration. Effective absorption from the oral route depends on both the chemical properties of the drug and the functional efficacy of the GI tract. Parenteral absorption is dependent on the extent of blood supply. The bioavailability of a drug is the most critical part of pharmacokinetics.

Harmful traditional practices- Female Genital Mutilation

Today there is an alarming trend in some countries where the procedure is being carried out by health care providers. UNICEF estimates that one in four FGM procedures where performed by a health care personnel. Medicalising this procedure risks normalising it and just because a doctor does it does not make it any less barbaric.

What Makes Heroin So Addictive and Dangerous?

There are two main ways that heroin is metabolised; one of the ways is through the Hepatic First Pass. This is done via the removal of an acetyl group when taken orally. The other way is through injections. Heroin that is administered via this route will evade the Hepatic First Pass and will quickly cross the blood-brain barrier. This is because of the presence of an acetyl group that makes it more soluble to fat. Once, in the brain, the acetyl group is removed, and heroin is reduced to 3-monoacetylmorphine and 6-monoacetylmorphine.

WHY IS CALCIUM IMPORTANT

Lack of calcium in the diet can lead to osteoporosis in which the bone is less dense and therefore brittle and weak. In women, osteoporosis can be due to lack of oestrogens after menopause or oophorectomy. Calcium is usually ubiquitous in diet, but often, a small amount of food provides reasonable amounts, of which dairy products are best.

War time Sexual violence and International Law

Article 27 of the fourth Geneva convention of 1949 clearly, states that women are to be protected against any attacks on their honor. Particularly against Rape, enforced prostitution or any form of indecent assault. The most vulnerable during war are the women and the children. Girls are usually raped and tortured, boys are trained as child soldiers, as is the currently the case in Congo and Somalia

Origins of the HIV and AIDS Pandemic

The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) belongs to a family of viruses called the lentiviruses; it is a Retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a condition that causes the degeneration of the immune system. This leaves an individual more prone to opportunistic infections and some forms of cancers. HIV/AIDS is transmitted through the contact of infected Blood, semen, vaginal fluid and through breast milk; the most common way that HIV/AIDS is spread through sexual intercourse with an infected person. This paper will look at the history of HIV/AIDS, the distribution, how the HIV/AIDS infects the host and how it targets the immune system (Sharp & Hahn, 2011).

Communication Challenges in Palliative Care

Palliative care is an approach to care that focuses on improving the quality of life of patients and their families facing the issues that are associated with life-threatening chronic incurable illnesses (Jarrell, 2016). It is important to note that palliative care does not mean end of life care and patients can be on palliative for years before they die (Wallerstedt et al.,